Study on the human rights impact of law enforcement on asylum seekers, refugees and migrants in Africa

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1. Introduction
Migration has become a complex and nuanced human rights crisis driven by multiple intersecting factors. These factors differ for each migrant, ranging from socio-economic need, the search for improved work opportunities, war, terrorism, persecution, insecurity and climate change.1 Migration itself is a natural practice, and a manifestation of the fundamental right to freedom of movement.2 However, national responses to migration, often implemented by law enforcement,3 frequently result in migrants facing a myriad of human rights violations. Examples of these harms include murder, sexual and gender-based violence (“GBV”), torture, unlawful detention, loss of contact with family members and discrimination.4 Migrants also face the risk of economic or physical exploitation, destitution, reduced access to socio-economic resources and refoulement to their country of origin, where their life and dignity may continue to be at risk.5

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